A bridge between the East and the West:
The Jewish cemetery of Rožna Dolina
By Michele Migliori
The Jewish cemetery of Rožna Dolina (Municipality of Nova Gorica) was founded at the beginning of the XIX century and served as the main burial site of the Jewish community of Gorizia (Italy) until 1947. Despite the fact that it was established only in the XIX century, it contains more than 900 matzevot, some of them dating before its foundation.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the history of the cemetery under a different perspective given by its geographical location between the East and the West, and its multicultural dimension, being the cemetery the mirror of the community it served for more than a century. In doing so, this paper is divided into seven sections. The first section is dedicated to the geographical location of the Jewish cemeteries of the cities. In fact, before the establishment of the current one, Gorizia had two other Jewish burial sites, which no longer exist: the first was located in the area of the Ghetto, and the second, in the same neighborhood where the current one is located.
Then, in the second section this paper explores the cemetery as a mirror of the society it has served for more than a century, characterized for its diversity in terms of origins and languages. Since Gorizia was a commercial crossroad during the Hapsburg Rule, its melting pot is reflected by the different tombstone inscriptions written in German, Italian, and Hebrew, and by the varied places of origin of the people there buried. The third section is focused on WWI and the interwar period, when Gorizia and its surroundings were annexed to the Italian Kingdom.
Fourth, as a result of the new borders delineated after WWII, the dramatically reduced Jewish community of Gorizia decided to donate the property of the cemetery and its ceremonial hall to the Municipality of Nova Gorica, in exchange of the guarantee that it would maintain and care for the cemetery. Moreover, in 1991, with the outbreak of the Slovenian Independence War, the area of the cemetery staged a battle between the Slovenian and Yugoslav armies.
Fifth, the cemetery and its European dimension, focusing on the recent transnational projects aiming to preserve and promote this site within the context of the cultural heritage of the urban areas of Gorizia and Nova Gorica. Specifically, this section dedicated to the new European dimension of the cemetery, explores the initiatives run from the Slovenian accession to the European Union until today.
All in all, this paper aims to analyze the importance of the cemetery, with particular emphasis on its geographical and multicultural dimension between the East and the West. The last section of this paper is dedicated to the future of the cemetery, since Gorizia and Nova Gorica are officially candidates for the title European Capital of Culture in 2025.
The very first Jewish cemetery in Gorizia was located in the area of the Ghetto, around Ascoli street, were Jews were forced to move starting from 1696, by order of the Austrian Emperor Leopold I. A historical record dating back to the XVII century, written by the priest, poet and polygraph Giovanni Maria Marussig, gives proof of this, he wrote that the Jew Vita Pincherle was buried by his family members closed to the Corno stream. The Corno river was covered in the 1930s, and it is currently under ground in the area of the old Ghetto. At the beginning of the 1980s, some bones were found during construction works in the area. Moreover, in the occasion of the synagogue’s renovation in 1984, all excavations were forbidden because of religious reasons, since another older and smaller cemetery was intended to be located in a garden alongside a Jewish prayer room on the site of the synagogue, there built in 1756.
The Jewish cemetery of Rožna Dolina (Valdirose in Italian, Rosenthal in German), was established in the area where it lies today at the beginning of the XIX century. However, before the cemetery was inaugurated in its current location, the Jewish community of Gorizia used to bury its members in the same neighborhood. Nevertheless, due to the distance between the burial site and the historical area of the Ghetto, where even before its abolition most Jews used to live, and where the synagogue was still located, the community decided to move the cemetery relatively closer to the city center. The exact location of the old Jewish cemetery of Rožna Dolina is unknown, but it is certain that it was already established at the end of the XVII century,(indicated in a map of the area from the same period, stored in the Pordenone Civic library), and served until the first decades of the XIX century. In 1881, sixteen tombstones were shifted from the old cemetery to the new one by Giacomo Bolaffio, who placed them on the external wall of the cemetery. The old cemetery was abandoned for several decades, and many tombstones were either stolen, covered in vegetation, or carried by a nearby stream. It is likely that right after the shift of the sixteen tombstones, the old cemetery officially closed.
As mentioned in the previous section, the first historical document dedicated to the “new” cemetery is the “List of the Buried in the Jewish cemetery of Gorizia” dated from October 1876, by Moisè Bolaffio, Benedetto Morpurgo, Giacomo Bolaffio, and Samuele Jona, members of the board of the Gorizia Jewish community. Today, the List constitutes two dozen pages, and it’s stored in the archive of the Trieste Jewish community, which is responsible for taking care of the religious aspects of the city’s Jewish heritage.
The first research on the List was carried out by the historian Angelo Vivian in the 1980s, who divided the 692 tombstones present at the time into four chronological categories. The two tombstones from the XIII-XV centuries pertain to the first category, the two tombstones from the XVI-XVII century to the second category, and the sixteen tombstones from the period between 1732-1828 (transferred from the old to the new cemetery in 1881) pertain to the third category, and the fourth and last includes the tombstones dating from 1829. The last list of the buried was made in 1932. It includes 878 tombstones, while today it is believed there are more than 900.
The List represents a valuable source for the scope of this paper as it shows the different geographical origins of the people there buried, which indicates the high level of multiculturalism that distinguished the Gorizia Jewish community from the XIX century. Even though the List doesn’t mention the place and date of birth, it mentions the origin of those community members who immigrated to Gorizia. Most members were originally from Gorizia, while several came from all around the territory of the Austrian Empire, such as the modern territories of Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, Ukraine, Croatia, Romania, Slovenia and Poland. Others came from other countries, like Italy (Firenze, Reggio Emilia, Venezia), Germany (Berlin), the Macedonian region, and Greece. The tombstones of the foreigners, together with the ones belonging to the poorer members of the community, as well as those who committed suicide, can be easily found close to the cemetery’s walls.
The fact that Jews from the Macedonian region and Greece were buried in this cemetery, make us think that not only Ashkenazi Jews, but also Sephardic Jews were part of the community. This can be proven by analyzing the surnames of the buried. For example, surnames such as Carvaglio, Lopes, Lopes Perera, and Pereira, registered in the list from 1876, show a clear Sephardic origin of these community members. According to Andrea Mariani, former President of the Jewish Community of Trieste, there are tombs of Jews with Arab origins.
This Sephardic origin can also be found in the style of some tombstones in the cemetery. For example, tombstone number 600 is a “round ball on a low cylindrical base, vaguely resembling a turban”, which according to the Yugoslav landscape architect Dusan Ogrin, resembles the gravestone of men in Muslim cemeteries. According to other local historians, it resembles the typical tombstone of men in Sephardic cemeteries.
The diverse origins of the members of the Gorizia Jewish Community who were buried in the cemetery shows that long before the turn of the XX century, the city was home of men and women from different backgrounds. At the beginning of the last century, Gorizia became home of several Jews coming from Eastern Europe, who were fleeing from the Russian pogroms. In consequence, Yiddish was one of the languages spoken in the city; the people’s contribution to the city’s Jewish and non-Jewish life is still remembered.
As the Kingdom of Italy went into war on May 24th, 1915, Gorizia became the front line of several battles fought between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian armies. During the twelve “Isonzo battles”, thousands of soldiers from both sides lost their lives, together with hundreds of civilians. The synagogue and the Ghetto area themselves were heavily damaged by the bombardments, and the synagogue was rededicated to for worship only in 1920, after two years of renovation works. Most of Gorizia Jews escaped right after the first Isonzo battle, including Rabbi Friedenthal, who had to return back to Hungary with his family, and returned to Gorizia only after the end of the war. During the war years, Benzion Fink, a
Polish Jew and shammash of the synagogue, took care of the religious duties, and was also in charge of burying the community members in the cemetery.
The cemetery suffered the same fate as the synagogue and the Ghetto, suffering major damages during the war. Moreover, in the fall of 1916 the cemetery became part of the front line itself. In fact, on the military maps of that period, it is possible to note that the Austro-Hungarian Army were positioned in the Eastern end of the cemetery, while the Italians on the western part. The cemetery was stuck in the middle, suffering several bombardments. The ceremonial hall, for example, was totally destroyed during the war, and was reconstructed only in 1928.
After the war, the Jewish soldiers from both sides fallen during the conflict were buried in the cemetery. Four of them belonged to the Austro-Hungarian empire. These tombstones are easily recognizable, since they were made in the typical military style that distinguished the gravestones of soldiers belonging to the Isonzoarmee. The four soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian army buried in the cemetery came from outside the Gorizia Jewish community: two were Dalmatians, one Galician (from Lemberg), and one from Bohemia. With reference to the latter, his name was Franz Artner, and died in 1917 in Chiapovano (today Cepovan, in Slovenia), his tombstone was transferred to the Gorizia cemetery in 1929, as he was first buried in a military cemetery in Chiapovano..
Additionally, Carolina Luzzatto Coen (1837-1919) is also buried in this cemetery. A poet and journalist, she was the leader of the pro-Italian movement in Gorizia during the Hapsburg rule. During the war, even though she was elderly, she was interned in a concentration camp in Gollesdorf. She passed away only a year after the end of the conflict, and her remains rest in the cemetery of Rožna Dolina, where other Gorizia Jews who fought on the Italian side are buried.
Interestingly, another Jewish tombstone belonging to an Austro-Hungarian soldier is located not far from Rožna Dolina, in a small village called Nemci, close to Lokve, in Slovenia. This tombstone lies in a small field surrounded by a forest, together with other two tombstones. Until the 1920s, this field hosted a War Cemetery with more than 700 bodies there-buried. Then, the bodies of those soldiers who had fallen during WWI were transferred to their respective homes, while the first three tombstones remained in the field. The Austro-Hungarian soldier was named Horvath and was probably a Hungarian Jew.
After the war, slowly but intensively, Jewish life in Gorizia returned to its normal path. The synagogue, closed in 1916, was reopened and rededicated in 1920, with a great ceremony officiated by Rabbi Friedenthal. Also, the cemetery underwent a full-scale renovation, with the inauguration of the new ceremonial hall in 1928. In 1932 a new and final list of the names of those buried in the cemetery was filled out. According to this last count, the number of tombstones in the cemetery was a total of 878.
The community’s life in the interwar period was animated by a new movement, “Hatikvah”, founded by Oscar Morpurgo and then managed by Prof. Da Fano. The main aim of this Zionist group was the religious and political education of the youth, trying to raise the interest of the young members of the community in their Jewish heritage. In the 1930s, the group’s leaders presented a project to the board of the Jewish community, to transform the land around the Jewish cemetery, at that time property of the community itself, to a hakhshara, where the youngsters from Gorizia and the nearby regions, could learn farming activities before making Aliyah (moving to British Mandatory Palestine). However, because of the 1938 Racial Laws and the subsequent outbreak of World War II, this initiative didn’t succeed.
After implementation of the Racial Laws, most Jews of foreign origin had to either return to their original country or hide. In 1943, the Germans occupied Gorizia, and until the end of the war it became part of the Adriatic littoral, under the direct control of Nazi Germany. During the Shoah, 78 Jews from Gorizia were deported, and only 2 returned. The last tombstones placed in the cemetery are the ones that commemorate the victims of the Shoah, for example, the one in memory of Anna Paola Luzzatto Coen, who died in Auschwitz in 1944, and that of Elda Michelstaedter Morpurgo, who died in Ravensbruck in 1944. Between the last tombstones placed in the cemetery, there are also the ones of the Donati brothers, who died as partisans fighting the Nazi-fascists.
The war virtually destroyed the Gorizia Jewish community. Only a few dozen Jews were left in the city after the Holocaust, and their activities could restart only thanks to the 88th US Army Division deployed in the city. The Division had several Jewish soldiers, as well as a Rabbi, who strongly helped the community to survive during the first years after the war. However, when the Division moved to Trieste and the city officially returned to be part of Italy, several members of the community decided to emigrate, and left Gorizia for Israel, the US, and other Italian regions.
Moreover, in 1947, the border between Italy and Yugoslavia separated the community from its cemetery, which from then on, belonged to Yugoslavia. From that year on, the last Jews of Gorizia started to use the Jewish cemetery of Gradisca d’Isonzo (Gradisce ob Soci, in Slovenian), 12 kilometers southwest of Gorizia. Gradisca was home to a small Jewish community which in 1893 had been incorporated into the community of Gorizia. The first funeral in Gradisca in 23 years was celebrated in 1954.
In 1969, the Jewish community of Gorizia, with only a few members, was incorporated into the Trieste Jewish community. In 1977, the total abandonment of the Rožna Dolina cemetery brought the Trieste community to sign a contract with the Municipality of Nova Gorica, in which the former donated to the latter the ceremonial hall, at that time in poor conditions and reconstructed in the 1980s, in exchange of the guarantee that the Municipality would take care of the maintenance of the cemetery. The contract was signed by Giacomo (Jacob) Rosenbaum on behalf of the Jewish community of Trieste, who was the last representative of the Jews of Gorizia. According to the contract, the Municipality of Nova Gorica could use the ceremonial hall only for socio-cultural purposes. However, in the last twenty years this agreement was not respected, as the ceremonial hall was used as a casino, and then as a bar.
In addition, the care and maintenance of the cemetery itself was quite poor in the decades following the aforementioned agreement. In the 1980s, some tombstones located on the external side of the cemetery’s wall were placed inside, and in the same decade the area suffered a flood that damaged several tombstones, which were already in a bad condition. The fact that in 1985 the cemetery was listed by the local authorities as a Monument of Local Interest didn’t improve its condition.
On June 28th, 1991, the war almost caused damages again to the cemetery. In fact, on that day the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA) and the Slovenian Territorial Army (STA) confronted each other in a battle in Rožna Dolina to take the control of the border station. The battle took place 500 meters away from the cemetery itself. According to an urban legend, which has not been proven, a confrontation between the two armies took place also within the cemetery.
After Slovenia officially entered the European Union on May 1st, 2004, and the subsequent implementation of the Schengen Treaty in 2007, access to the cemetery was facilitated. Since 2007, it is possible to arrive to the cemetery by foot passing through the border crossing of Casa Rossa without showing any identification document, since no formal border is actually present. After decades of separation, the cemetery ideally returned to be part of its community, and its access granted to everyone. A new era started, made of new projects, initiatives, and dreams.
The first renovation project was initiated in 2010, on the 100th anniversary of the death of Carlo Michelstaedter the renovation was funded by the Carigo Foundation with the collaboration of the Nova Gorica Municipality and the Jewish community of Trieste. Carlo Michelstaedter was a Jewish philosopher, painter, and intellectual, who committed suicide right after the completion of his masters’ thesis. The works were completed by “ACR – Arte, Cultura e Restauro” from Mestre, Venice, under the supervision of architect Giorgio Picotti, and restorer Greta Schonaut. The main focus of the renovation was the tombstone of Michelstaedter himself, together with the ones of his family members, and those of Anna Benporad, Giulio Steiner, and Oscar Morpurgo. Moreover, a new gate was installed close to the cycle path and is reachable through a small wooden bridge on the Vertoibizza stream. Next to the new gate multilingual signage was installed, which tells the history of the community and that of the most important personalities who are buried in the cemetery. An iron sink was also installed inside the cemetery.
This renovation work was a first and partial attempt to give back its dignity to the abandoned cemetery, with the aim to enlist it in a Jewish touristic itinerary of Gorizia, which also includes the synagogue, the area of the ghetto, as well as other locations. In 2016, Italy and Slovenia announced the establishment of a transnational cooperation project, a full-scale renovation of the cemetery, which will be led by Architect Andrea Morpurgo under the supervision of Renzo Funaro, both architects of the Foundation for Jewish Heritage in Italy.
As first pointed out in the introduction, the aim of this paper was to underline the history of the cemetery under a different point of view, through its geographical dimension, between the East and the West, and its multicultural dimension, being the cemetery the mirror of the community it had served for more than one century. The members of the Jewish community of Gorizia belonged to different geographical origins, spoke different languages, but shared the same faith.
Over the centuries, Gorizia was home for Jews looking for a better life, fleeing from repressions and pogroms, or looking for better business opportunities, the city being an important commercial crossroad back in the Austrian period. The community was composed by rich and poor, by doctors and bakers, by entrepreneurs and workers. Their memory is kept alive by the Jewish heritage that has remained in the city. In 1984, the synagogue was fully renovated and today is one of the most visited and treasured sites of the city. Now is the time for the cemetery to undergo a full-scale renovation, which will start in the near future.
Hopefully, this will be completed before 2025, when Slovenia will host the European Capital of Culture. Nova Gorica and Gorizia are jointly an official candidate for this title. I believe that this could finally be the occasion to include the cemetery on a proper Jewish itinerary of the city, which would not only be an online resource, but a complete touristic route.
In fact, since the mid-1980s, when the Association Friends of Israel was established, new Jewish routes were included as part of the tourist itinerary. The Friends of Israel Association is the main actor on the ground that looks after Jewish heritage in Gorizia, and accesses the cemetery since the Schengen treaty was fully implemented in Slovenia. Its headquarters are located inside the synagogue complex, where they also take care of a small onsite museum on Jewish heritage in the city, as well as a display of Carlo Michelstaedter’s paintings. The Association also organizes events and walking tours of the Jewish heritage in Gorizia, but solely on special occasions, such as the European Day of Jewish Culture. In view of the 2025 European Capital of Culture, a better-organized itinerary should be implemented, with more than one stakeholder involved.
In a related development, a project to renovate the attic room in the Palazzo Paternolli, where Michelstaedter wrote most of his works, was recently announced. Funds are ready, but works haven’t started yet. The project call for the loft to house an exhibition of paintings by Michelstaedter and will also serve as the headquarters of a cultural association. The promoter of this initiative, Chiara Pradella, a young cultural consultant, said that she is looking forward for the candidacy of Gorizia/Nova Gorica as CEC 2025 to develop a new and better organized Jewish itinerary.
In another related development, Chiara Comaro, a student who recently graduated from the Ca’ Foscari University in Venice wrote a bachelors’ thesis proposing new ways to revive the Jewish heritage of the city. At part of her thesis, she drafted a 3.5-kilometer Jewish itinerary, which ends at the cemetery. The ceremonial hall of the cemetery, she proposed, could be an information point for the Jewish and non-Jewish sites of both cities.
I feel that the ceremonial hall could indeed be an information point, but also something more. It could host paintings by Michelstaedter, which are now stored in the Fondo Michelstaedter in the Isontina Civic Library, and not openly accessible to visitors. It could show an exhibition on the cemetery; it could serve as a cultural center open for both Italian and Slovenian associations. It could be a symbol of peace and respect towards a community and its members — all in the context of the European Capital of Culture 2025.
1 Gruber, R.E, Gorizia/Nova Gorica: A transborder Jewish cemetery project; Italy and Slovenia, Jewish Heritage Europe, 10/11/2017. Retrieved from: https://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/11/10/gorizianova-gorica-transborder-jewish-cemetery-project/
2 More info about Giovanni Maria Marussig, Dizionario Biografico dei Friulani, retrieved from: http://www.dizionariobiograficodeifriulani.it/marusig-giovanni-maria/
3 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.86
4 Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.22
5 Visit Jewish Italy, (2018). Retrieved from: http://www.visitjewishitaly.it/en/listing/cemetery-of-valdirose/
6 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.86
8 Vivian, A., Il cimitero israelitico di Nova Gorica, in Gli Ebrei a Gorizia e Trieste tra “Ancien Regime” ed emancipazione, Del Bianco, Udine, 1984, p.93
9 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.87
10 Mariani, A., Valdirose, Rožna Dolina, Rosenthal, in Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.8
11 Gruber, R.E. and S.D., Jewish Cemeteries, Synagogues, and Monuments in Slovenia, United States Commission for the preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad, 2005, p. 11
12 Gruber, R.E. and S.D., Jewish Cemeteries, Synagogues, and Monuments in Slovenia, United States Commission for the preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad, 2005, p. 11
13 Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.18
14 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.12
15 Cedarmas, A., Fra Vienna e Roma: la Comunità israelitica di Gorizia tra la fine dell’Ottocento e la Grande Guerra, Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 2000, p. 114.
16 Podbersič, R., Stanje duha na Goriskem – Judovsko pokopalisce v Rozni Dolini, in Razpotja.si, 2013, retrieved from: http://www.razpotja.si/stanje-duha-na-goriskem-judovsko-pokopalisce-v-rozni-dolini/
17 Gruber, R.E. and S.D. Jewish Cemeteries, Synagogues, and Monuments in Slovenia, United States Commission for the preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad, 2005, p. 12
18 Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.26
20 Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.23
21 Morpurgo, M. Rievocando le ultime vicende della scomparsa Comunità di Gorizia, La Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 44(11/12), 1978, pp.707-708
22 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.88
23 Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.22
24 Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.9
25 Vivian, A., ll cimitero ebraico di Gradisca d’Isonzo, in Egitto e Vicino Oriente, 1986, pp.151-155.
26 Gruber, R.E., Gorizia/Nova Gorica: A transborder Jewish cemetery project; Italy and Slovenia, Jewish Heritage Europe, 10/11/2017. Retrieved from: https://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/11/10/gorizianova-gorica-transborder-jewish-cemetery-project/
27 Podbersič, R., Stanje duha na Goriskem – Judovsko pokopalisce v Rozni Dolini, in Razpotja.si, 2013, retrieved from: http://www.razpotja.si/stanje-duha-na-goriskem-judovsko-pokopalisce-v-rozni-dolini/
28 Il Messaggero Veneto, 1/10/2010, retrived from: https://ricerca.gelocal.it/messaggeroveneto/archivio/messaggeroveneto/2010/10/01/GO_06_GOD5.html
29 Gallarotti, A., Itinerario Ebraico, retrieved from: https://www.gopolis.it/ebrei/a/gorizia/
30 Website dedicated to the renovation: https://www.cimiterovaldirose.org
31 Comaro, C., Una proposta per lo sviluppo del territorio di Gorizia: La rivalorizzazione del patrimonio ebraico della città, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, 2019
Cedarmas, A., Fra Vienna e Roma: la Comunità israelitica di Gorizia tra la fine dell’Ottocento e la Grande Guerra, Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 2000, p. 114.
Comaro, C., Una proposta per lo sviluppo del territorio di Gorizia: La rivalorizzazione del patrimonio ebraico della città, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, 2019
Gallarotti, A., Loricchio, M.E., Gerusalemme sull’Isonzo: sinagoga, museo, itinerari ebraici goriziani, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.86
Gallarotti, A., Itinerario Ebraico, retrieved from: https://www.gopolis.it/ebrei/a/gorizia/
Gruber, R.E, Gorizia/Nova Gorica: A transborder Jewish cemetery project; Italy and Slovenia, Jewish Heritage Europe, 10/11/2017. Retrieved from: https://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/11/10/gorizianova-gorica-transborder-jewish-cemetery-project/
Gruber, R.E. and Gruber, S.D., Jewish Cemeteries, Synagogues, and Monuments in Slovenia, United States Commission for the preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad, 2005, p. 11
Il Messaggero Veneto, 1/10/2010, retrived from: https://ricerca.gelocal.it/messaggeroveneto/archivio/messaggeroveneto/2010/10/01/GO_06_GOD5.html
Loricchio, M.E., Colla, A., Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.22
Mariani, A., Valdirose, Rožna Dolina, Rosenthal, in Valdirose. Il cimitero della comunità ebraica di Gorizia, Edizioni della Laguna, Mariano del Friuli, 2004, p.8
Morpurgo, M. Rievocando le ultime vicende della scomparsa Comunità di Gorizia, La Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 44(11/12), 1978, pp.707-708
Podbersič, R., Stanje duha na Goriskem – Judovsko pokopalisce v Rozni Dolini, in Razpotja.si, 2013, retrieved from: http://www.razpotja.si/stanje-duha-na-goriskem-judovsko-pokopalisce-v-rozni-dolini/
Vivian, A., Il cimitero israelitico di Nova Gorica, in Gli Ebrei a Gorizia e Trieste tra “Ancien Regime” ed emancipazione, Del Bianco, Udine, 1984, p.93
Vivian, A., ll cimitero ebraico di Gradisca d’Isonzo, in Egitto e Vicino Oriente, 1986, pp.151-155.